专注论文查重修改6年+经验

在家族企业中仁慈领导与非家族员工发言行为之关係探讨-一个中介调节模型

【中文摘要】:根据社会交换理论以及社会认同理论,本研究认为领导者-部属交换关係差异是一个重要的情境变项,它将强化仁慈领导对主管部属关係品质与非家族员工发言行为的影响力。本研究总共调查50间家族368位非家族员工。研究结果显示在领导者-部属交换关係差异很高的情况下,仁慈领导对于非家族成员建言行为的影响力将得到强化。此外,研究结果也显示,上述的影响是因为仁慈领导与领导者-部属交换关係差异的交互影响,改变了主管与部属的关係品质。根据结果,本研究分别在理论与实务提出相关建议。
【英文摘要】:By integrating social exchange theory with social identity theory, the present study proposes that LMX (leader-member-exchange) differentiation is an important contextual variable for improving the effect of benevolent leadership on supervisor-subordinate guanxi and consequently impact employees’ voice behavior. Using a sample of 368 nonfamliy employees from 50 family businesses, this study discovered that when subordinates perceive their owners’ expressed high-level of LMX differentiation among the organization, then such perception may augment the effect of benevolent leadership. More specifically, this effect is revealed through an improvement in their quality of supervisor-subordinate guanxi and ultimately will promote their willingness to voice constructively. The implications for theory and practice are discussed.
【参考文献】:

  • Scase, R., & Goffee, R. (1987). The real world of the small business owner: Croom Helm London.
  • Sharma, P. (2004). An overview of the field of family business studies: Current status and directions for the future. Family Business Review, 17(1), 1-36.
  • Shore, Lynn M, Tetrick, Lois E, Lynch, Patricia, & Barksdale, Kevin. (2006). Social and economic exchange: Construct development and validation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(4), 837-867.
  • Sirmon, D.G., & Hitt, M.A. (2003). Managing resources: Linking unique resources, management, and wealth creation in family firms. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(4), 339-358.
  • Tajfel, Henri (1979). Individuals and groups in social psychology. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 18(2), 183-190.
  • Tajfel, Henri (1978). Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations: Academic Press.
  • Tan, Hwee Hoon, & Chee, Dave (2005). Understanding Interpersonal Trust in a Confucian-influenced Society- An Exploratory Study. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 5(2), 197-212.
  • Tangirala, Subrahmaniam, & Ramanujam, Rangaraj (2008). Exploring nonlinearity in employee voice: The effects of personal control and organizational identification. Academy of Management Journal, 51(6), 1189-1203.
  • Tsui, Anne S, Egan, Terri, & O”Reilly, Charles (1991). Being different: Relational demography and organizational attachment. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Proceedings.
  • Tsui, A.S., & Farh, J.L.L. (1997). Where guanxi matters. Work and Occupations, 24(1), 56-79.
  • Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Botero, I.C. (2003). Conceptualizing Employee Silence and Employee Voice as Multidimensional Constructs*. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1359-1392.
  • Van Dyne, Linn, & LePine, Jeffrey A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 108-119.
  • Wang, A.C., & Cheng, B.S. (2009). When does benevolent leadership lead to creativity? The moderating role of creative role identity and job autonomy. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(1), 106-121.
  • Wang, An‐Chih, Hsieh, Hsu‐Hung, Tsai, Chou‐Yu, & Cheng, Bor‐Shiuan (2012). Does value congruence lead to voice? Cooperative voice and cooperative silence under team and differentiated transformational leadership. Management and Organization Review, 8(2), 341-370.
  • Wheelock, J., & Baines, S. (1998). Dependency or self-reliance? The contradictory case of work in UK small business families. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 19(1), 53-73.
  • Wong, C.S., Tinsley, C, Law, K.S., & Mobley, W.H. (2003). Development and validation of a multidimensional measure of guanxi. Journal of Psychology in Chinese Societies, 4(1), 43-69.
  • Xin, K. R., & Perace, J. L. (1996). Guanxi: Connections as substitutes for formal institutional support. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1641-1658.
  • Yang, K. S. (1988). Will societal modernization eventually eliminate cross-cultural psychological differences? In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The cross-cultural challenge to social psychology (pp. 67-85). London: Sage.
  • Yang, K. S. (1993). Chinese social orientation: An integrative analysis. In L. Y. Cheng, F.M.C. Cheung, & C. N. Chen (Eds.), Psychotherapy for the Chinese: Selected papers from the first international conference (pp. 19-56). Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
  • Yang L.S. (1957). The concept of ‘Pao’ as a basis for social relations in China. In: Fairbank JK, editor. Chinese thought and institutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 291–309.
  • Yang, Mayfair M. (1994). Gifts, favors, and banquets: The art of social relationships in China: Cornell University Press.
  • Yeung, Irene Y.M., & Tung, Rosalie L. (1996). Achieving business success in Confucian societies: The importance of guanxi (connections). Organizational Dynamics, 25(2), 54-65.
  • Zhou, Y. H. (1983). The relationship between Chinese value system and managerial behaviors in large enterprises in Taiwan. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Institute of Business and Management, National Chengchi University, Taiwan (in Chinese).
  • Scandura, Terri A., & Graen, George B. (1984). Moderating effects of initial leader–member exchange status on the effects of a leadership intervention. Journal of applied psychology, 69(3), 428.
  • Riggs, Matt L, & Knight, Patrick A. (1994). The impact of perceived group success-failure on motivational beliefs and attitudes: a causal model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(5), 755.
  • Premeaux, Sonya Fontenot, & Bedeian, Arthur G. (2003). Breaking the Silence: The Moderating Effects of Self‐Monitoring in Predicting Speaking Up in the Workplace. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1537-1562.
  • Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879-903.
  • Pinder, Craig C, & Harlos, Karen P. (2001). Employee silence: quiescence and acquiescence as responses to perceived injustice. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 20, 331-369.
  • Pérez-González, F. (2006). Inherited control and firm performance. The American Economic Review, 96(5), 1559-1588.
  • Pellegrini, E.K., & Scandura, T.A. (2008). Paternalistic leadership: A review and agenda for future research. Journal of Management, 34(3), 566-593.
  • Parsons, T., & Shils, E. (1951). Toward a general theory of social action. Cambridge: Harward University Press, 951, 58-59.
  • Parker, S. K., Wall, T. D., & Cordery, J. L. (2001). Future work design research and practice: Towards an elaborated model of work design. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74, 413-440.
  • Organ, Dennis W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome: Lexington Books/DC Heath and Com.
  • Niu, Chun‐Pai, Wang, An‐Chih, & Cheng, Bor‐Shuian. (2009). Effectiveness of a moral and benevolent leader: Probing the interactions of the dimensions of paternalistic leadership. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 12(1), 32-39.
  • Muller, D., Judd, C.M., & Yzerbyt, V.Y. (2005). When moderation is mediated and mediation is moderated. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(6), 852-863.
  • Morrison, E.W., & Milliken, F.J. (2000). Organizational silence: A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world. Academy of Management Review, 25(4), 706-725.
  • Morrison, Elizabeth W. (2011). Employee voice behavior: Integration and directions for future research. The Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 373-412.
  • Morck, R.K., Stangeland, D.A., & Yeung, B. (1998). Inherited wealth, corporate control and economic growth: The Canadian disease: National Bureau of Economic Research.
  • Milliken, F.J., Morrison, E.W., & Hewlin, P.F. (2003). An Exploratory Study of Employee Silence: Issues that Employees Don’t Communicate Upward and Why*. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1453-1476.
  • Maslyn, John M., & Uhl-Bien, Mary. (2001). Leader–member exchange and its dimensions: Effects of self-effort and other”s effort on relationship quality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(4), 697.
  • Luo, Yadong, Huang, Ying, & Wang, Stephanie Lu. (2012). Guanxi and Organizational Performance: A Meta‐Analysis. Management and Organization Review, 8(1), 139-172.
  • Luo, Yadong. (2000). Guanxi and business (Vol. 1): World Scientific.
  • Luo, Y. (1997). Guanxi: principles, philosophies, and implications. Human Systems Management, 16, 43-52.
  • Luk, Chung-Leung, Yau, Oliver H.M., Sin, Leo Y.M., Tse, Alan C.B., Chow, Raymond P.M., & Lee, Jenny S.Y. (2008). The effects of social capital and organizational innovativeness in different institutional contexts. Journal of International Business Studies, 39(4), 589-612.
  • Litz, R.A. (1995). The family business: Toward definitional clarity. Family Business Review, 8(2), 71-81.
  • Ling, W. Q., Chen, L. & Wang, D. (1987). The construction of the CPM scale for leadership behavior assessment, Acta Psychologica Sinica, 19: 199-207. (In Chinese)
  • Liden, Robert C., Sparrowe, Raymond T., & Wayne, Sandy J. (1997). Leader-member exchange theory: The past and potential for the future.
  • Liang, Shing-Ko, Ling, Hsiao-Chi, & Hsieh, Sung-Yi. (2007). The mediating effects of leader-member exchange quality to influence the relationships between paternalistic leadership and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of American Academy of Business, 10(2), 127-137.
  • Liang, S.K., Ling, H. C., & Hsieh, S.Y. (2007). The mediating effects of leader-member exchange quality to influence the relationships between paternalistic leadership and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of American Academy of Business, 10(2): 127–137.
  • Liang, Jian, Farh, Crystal I.C., & Farh, Jiing-Lih. (2012). Psychological antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice: A two-wave examination. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 71-92.
  • LePine, Jeffrey A, & Van Dyne, Linn. (1998). Predicting voice behavior in work groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(6), 853.
  • Lee, Seung-Hyun, & Oh, Kyeungrae Kenny. (2007). Corruption in Asia: Pervasiveness and arbitrariness. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 24(1), 97-114.
  • Law, K.S., Wong, C.S., Wang, D., & Wang, L. (2000). Effect of supervisor-subordinate guanxi on supervisory decisions in China: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11, 751-765.
  • Landis, Ronald S, Beal, Daniel J, & Tesluk, Paul E. (2000). A comparison of approaches to forming composite measures in structural equation models. Organizational Research Methods, 3(2), 186-207.
  • King, A.Y. (1989). An analysis of renqing in interpersonal relations. In K. S. Yang (Ed.), The psychology of the Chinese. Taipei, China: Kui-Kuan Books.
  • King, Ambrose Yeo-chi. (1991). Kuan-hsi and network building: A sociological interpretation. Daedalus, 120(2), 63-84.
  • King, A.Y. (1989). An analysis of Renqing in interpersonal relations. The Psychology of the Chinese, Taipei, ROC: Kui-Kuan Books (in Chinese).
  • Kelly, Caroline. (1993). Group identification, intergroup perceptions and collective action. European Review of Social Psychology, 4(1), 59-83.
  • Katz, Daniel, & Kahn, Robert Louis. (1978). The social psychology of organizations.
  • Katz, Daniel. (1964). The motivational basis of organizational behavior. Behavioral science, 9(2), 131-146.
  • Jöreskog, KG, & Sörbom, D. (2006). LISREL (version 8.80)[computer software]. Chicago: Scientific Software International.
  • James, Lawrence R, Demaree, Robert G, & Wolf, Gerrit. (1993). rwg: An assessment of within-group interrater agreement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(2), 306.
  • Jacobs, J. Bruce. (1980). Local politics in a rural Chinese cultural setting: a field study of Mazu Township, Taiwan. Local politics in a rural Chinese cultural setting: a field study of Mazu Township, Taiwan.
  • Jacobs, J. Bruce. (1979). A preliminary model of particularistic ties in Chinese political alliances: Kan-ch”ing and Kuan-hsi in a rural Taiwanese township. The China Quarterly, 78, 237-273.
  • Hwang, K. (1987). Face and favor: The Chinese power game. American journal of Sociology, 944-974.
  • Howard, Ann (1995). The changing nature of work: Jossey-Bass.
  • Homans, George C. (1958). Social behavior as exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 597-606.
  • Hogg, Michael A., Terry, Deborah J., & White, Katherine M. (1995). A tale of two theories: A critical comparison of identity theory with social identity theory. Social psychology quarterly, 255-269.
  • Hogg, Michael A, Hardie, Elizabeth A, & Reynolds, Katherine J. (1995). Prototypical similarity, self‐categorization, and depersonalized attraction: A perspective on group cohesiveness. European Journal of Social Psychology, 25(2), 159-177.
  • Heck, R. K. Z., & Stafford, K. (2001). “The Vital Institution of Family Business: Economic Benefits Hidden in Plain Sight,” in Destroying Myths and Creating Value in Family Business. Eds. G. K. McCann and N. Upton, Deland, FL: Stetson University, 9–17.
  • Hall, P.D. (1988). A historical overview of family firms in the United States. Family Business Review, 1(1), 51-68.
  • Habbershon, T.G., Williams, M., & MacMillan, I.C. (2003). A unified systems perspective of family firm performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(4), 451-465.
  • Grant, A.M., & Mayer, D.M. (2009). Good soldiers and good actors: Prosocial and impression management motives as interactive predictors of affiliative citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 900.
  • Grant, Adam M, & Ashford, Susan J. (2008). The dynamics of proactivity at work. Research in organizational behavior, 28, 3-34.
  • Gómez-Mejía, L.R., Haynes, K.T., Núñez-Nickel, M., Jacobson, K.J.L., & Moyano-Fuentes, J. (2007). Socioemotional wealth and business risks in family-controlled firms: Evidence from Spanish olive oil mills. Administrative Science Quarterly, 52(1), 106.
  • Gomez-Mejia, L.R., Cruz, C., Berrone, P., & De Castro, J. (2011). The bind that ties: Socioemotional wealth preservation in family firms. The Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 653-707.
  • Gersick, K.E., Davis, J.A., Hampton, M.M.C., & Lansberg, I. (1997). Empresas familiares: generación a generación: McGraw-Hill México.
  • Fiske, Alan P. (1992). The four elementary forms of sociality: framework for a unified theory of social relations. Psychological review, 99(4), 689.
  • Ferris, Gerald R, Liden, Robert C, Munyon, Timothy P, Summers, James K, Basik, Kevin J, & Buckley, M Ronald. (2009). Relationships at work: Toward a multidimensional conceptualization of dyadic work relationships. Journal of Management, 35(6), 1379-1403.
  • Fei, Xiaotong. (1992). From the soil: The foundations of Chinese society: Univ of California Press.
  • Farh, J. L., Earley, P. C., & Lin, S. C. (1997). Impetus for action: A cultural analysis of justice and organizational citizenship behavior in chinese society. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 421-444.
  • Farh, J.L., & Cheng, B.S. (2000). A cultural analysis of paternalistic leadership in Chinese organizations. Management and organizations in the Chinese context, 84-127.
  • Farh, J.L., Liang, J., Chou, L.F., & Cheng, B.S. (2008). Paternalistic leadership in Chinese organizations: Research progress and future research directions.
  • Erdogan, Berrin, & Bauer, Talya N. (2010). Differentiated leader–member exchanges: The buffering role of justice climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(6), 1104.
  • Edmondson, Amy C. (2003). Speaking up in the operating room: How team leaders promote learning in interdisciplinary action teams. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1419-1452.
  • Dutton, Jane E., & Ashford, Susan J. (1993). Selling issues to top management. Academy of management review, 18(3), 397-428.
  • Dunfee, Thomas W., & Warren, Danielle E. (2001). Is guanxi ethical? A normative analysis of doing business in China. Journal of Business Ethics, 32(3), 191-204.
  • Dienesch, Richard M., & Liden, Robert C. (1986). Leader-member exchange model of leadership: A critique and further development. Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 618-634.
  • Detert, James R, & Treviño, Linda K. (2010). Speaking up to higher-ups: How supervisors and skip-level leaders influence employee voice. Organization Science, 21(1), 249-270.
  • Detert, James R, & Burris, Ethan R. (2007). Leadership behavior and employee voice: is the door really open? Academy of Management Journal, 50(4), 869-884.
  • Dawson, Miles Menander. (1915). The ethics of Confucius: the sayings of the master and his disciples upon the conduct of” the superior man,” Putnam.
  • Davis, J.A., & Tagiuri, R. (1989). The influence of life stage on father-son work relationships in family companies. Family Business Review, 2(1), 47-74.
  • Cruz, C., Firfiray, S., & Gomez-Mejia, L.R. (2011). Socioemotional Wealth and Human Resource Management (HRM) in Family-Controlled Firms. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 30, 159.
  • Cropanzano, Russell, & Mitchell, Marie S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874-900.
  • Colquitt, Jason A, Scott, Brent A, & LePine, Jeffery A. (2007). Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: a meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 909.
  • Clark, Margaret S, & Mills, Judson. (1979). Interpersonal attraction in exchange and communal relationships. Journal of personality and social psychology, 37(1), 12.
  • Clark, Margaret S, & Finkel, Eli J. (2005). Willingness to express emotion: The impact of relationship type, communal orientation, and their interaction. Personal Relationships, 12(2), 169-180.
  • Chua, J.H., Chrisman, J.J., & Sharma, P. (2003). Succession and nonsuccession concerns of family firms and agency relationship with nonfamily managers. Family Business Review, 16(2), 89-107.
  • Chua, J.H., Chrisman, J.J., & Sharma, P. (1999). Defining the family business by behavior. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 23, 19-40.
  • Chua, J.H., Chrisman, J.J., & Bergiel, E.B. (2009). An agency theoretic analysis of the professionalized family firm. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(2), 355-372.
  • Chrisman, J.J., Chua, J.H., & Sharma, P. (2005). Trends and directions in the development of a strategic management theory of the family firm. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(5), 555-576.
  • Chrisman, J.J., Chua, J.H., & Litz, R. (2003). A unified systems perspective of family firm performance: An extension and integration. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(4), 467-472.
  • Chou, W.J., Chou, L.F., Cheng, B.S., & Jen, C.K. (2010). Juan-chiuan and shang-yan: The components of authoritarian leadership. Psychological Research in Chinese Societies. (in Chinese)
  • Cheng, B.S., Wang, A.C., & Huang, M.P. (2009). The road more popular versus the road less travelled: An ‘insider”s’ perspective of advancing Chinese management research. Management and Organization Review, 5(1), 91-105.
  • Cheng, B.S., Chou, L.F., Wu, T.Y., Huang, M.P., & Farh, J.L. (2004). Paternalistic leadership and subordinate responses: Establishing a leadership model in Chinese organizations. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 7(1), 89-117.
  • Cheng, B.S. (1995). Paternalistic authority and leadership: A case study of a Taiwanese CEO. Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnology Academic Sinica, 79, 119-173.
  • Cheng, B.S., Shieh, P.Y., & Chou, L.F. (2002). The principal’s leadership, leader-member exchange quality, and the teacher’s extra-role behavior: The effects of transformational and paternalistic leadership. Indigenous Psychological Research in Chinese Societies, 17, 105-161.
  • Cheng, B.S., & Jiang, D.Y. 2000. Supervisory loyalty in Chinese business enterprises: The relative effects of emic and imposed-etic constructs on employee effectiveness. Indigenous Psychological Research in Chinese Societies, 14: 65–114 (in Chinese).
  • Cheng, B.S., Huang, M.P., & Chou, L.F. (2002). Paternalistic leadership and its effectiveness: Evidence from Chinese organizational teams.
  • Chen, Zhen Xiong, Tsui, Anne S, & Farh, Jiing‐Lih. (2002). Loyalty to supervisor vs. organizational commitment: Relationships to employee performance in China. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(3), 339-356.
  • Chen, Xiao-Ping, Eberly, Marion B., Chiang, Ting-Ju, Farh, Jiing-Lih, & Cheng, Bor-Shiuan. (2011). Affective trust in Chinese leaders: Linking paternalistic leadership to employee performance. Journal of Management.
  • Chen, Xiao-Ping, & Chen, Chao C. (2004). On the intricacies of the Chinese guanxi: A process model of guanxi development. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 21(3), 305-324.
  • Chen, C.C., Chen, Y.R., & Xin, K. (2004). Guanxi practices and trust in management: A procedural justice perspective. Organization Science, 15, 200-209.
  • Chan, Simon C.H., & Mak, W.M. (2012). Benevolent leadership and follower performance: The mediating role of leader–member exchange (LMX). Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 29(2), 285-301.
  • Chan, D. (1998). Functional relations among constructs in the same content domain at different levels of analysis: A typology of composition models. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 234-246.
  • Casillas, J.C., Acedo, F.J., & Moreno, A.M. (2007). International entrepreneurship in family businesses: Edward Elgar Pub.
  • Carney, M. (2005). Corporate Governance and Competitive Advantage in Family‐Controlled Firms. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(3), 249-265.
  • Burt, R.S. (1992). Structural holes: The social structure of competition: Harvard University Press.
  • Burris, Ethan R, Detert, James R, & Chiaburu, Dan S. (2008). Quitting before leaving: the mediating effects of psychological attachment and detachment on voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(4), 912.
  • Brickson, S. (2000). The impact of identity orientation on individual and organizational outcomes in demographically diverse settings. The Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 82-101.
  • Brewer, M.B., & Gardner, W. (1996). Who is this” We”? Levels of collective identity and self representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(1), 83.
  • Bond, Michael Harris, & Hwang, Kwang-kuo. (1986). The social psychology of Chinese people: Oxford University Press.
  • Boisot, Max, & Child, John. (1996). From fiefs to clans and network capitalism: Explaining China”s emerging economic order. Administrative Science Quarterly, 600-628.
  • Bliese, Paul D. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analysis.
  • Blau, Peter M, & Duncan, Otis Dudley. (1967). The American occupational structure.
  • Bird, B., Welsch, H., Astrachan, J.H., & Pistrui, D. (2002). Family business research: The evolution of an academic field. Family Business Review, 15(4), 337-350.
  • Bhattacharya, U., & Ravikumar, B. (2004). From cronies to professionals: The evolution of family firms. Mimeographed, Indiana University.
  • Bernhard, F. & O”Driscoll, M.P. (2011). Psychological Ownership in Small Family-Owned Businesses: Leadership Style and Nonfamily-Employees’ Work Attitudes and Behaviors. Group & Organization Management, 36(3), 345-384.
  • Bell, Duran. (2000). Guanxi: A Nesting of Groups1. Current Anthropology, 41(1), 132-138.
  • Barnard, Chester Irving. (1938). The functions of the executive: Harvard University Press.
  • Bandura A. 1997. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman
  • Bandalos, Deborah L. (2002). The effects of item parceling on goodness-of-fit and parameter estimate bias in structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(1), 78-102.
  • Bagozzi, R.P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16, 74-94.
  • Astrachan, J.H., Zahra, S.A., & Sharma, P. (2003). Family-sponsored ventures. Kansas, MO: Kauffman Foundation.
  • Astrachan, J.H., & Shanker, M.C. (2003). Family businesses’ contribution to the US economy: A closer look. Family Business Review, 16(3), 211-219.
  • Astrachan, J.H., Klein, S.B., & Smyrnios, K.X. (2002). The F‐PEC Scale of Family Influence: A Proposal for Solving the Family Business Definition Problem. Family Business Review, 15(1), 45-58.
  • Ashford, Susan J, Sutcliffe, Kathleen M, & Christianson, Marlys K. (2009). Speaking up and speaking out: The leadership dynamics of voice in organizations. Voice and silence in organizations, 175-202.
  • Adkins, C.L. (1995). Previous work experience and organizational socialization: A longitudinal examination. Academy of Management Journal, 839-862.
  • Abrams, Dominic, & Hogg, Michael A. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self‐esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18(4), 317-334.
  • REFERENCES
  • 来源:中山大学;作者:黄佩琪
    文懂论文-重复率修改第一品牌,http://www.szwox.com解决论文查重论文降重复,重复率高等各种论文难题的专家

    最新文章

    • 什么是学术不端行为
      什么是学术不端行为
      什么是学术不端行为 1992 年,由美国国家科学院、国家工程院和国家医学研究院组成的 22 位...
    • 论文降重复服务 1. 本网站及服务 szwox.com提供哪些服务? szwox.com是一个...

    联络我们

    QQ: 767326772
    文懂论文
    网站:http://www.szwox.com/
    E-mail: turuinit@foxmail.com

    我们的服务

    我们提供毕业论文、期刊论文、硕士论文、博士论文、会议论文格式排版,论文查重,重复率修改等服务。强大论文查重系统,一手老师资源,首创安全保密查重修改流程。充分保障客户论文查重安全以及修改后的品质,赢得了老师和同学们的信任和口碑。