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以微笑服务就够了吗?探讨情绪劳动对顾客态度的影响:服务贴心行为与顾客印象管理行为的三阶干扰效果

【中文摘要】:顾客满意度是竞争激烈的服务业的重要评估项目之一,而左右顾客满意度的关键即为第一线直接与顾客互动的服务人员,因此不论是服务人员情绪表达及关係行销等不同的研究领域,皆着重于服务人员的行为如何影响顾客态度、并建立长期顾客关係。本研究以「任务-关係-自我」架构为主轴,试图整合服务人员情绪表达及关係行销二领域的研究,同时比较情绪劳动、顾客导向印象管理、服务贴心行为三种服务行为的差异,并在控制了顾客导向印象管理与服务贴心行为后,探讨情绪劳动对顾客满意度的独特影响力、以及情绪劳动搭配顾客导向印象管理及服务贴心行为时,三者的影响效果是相辅相成,抑或互相抵销。
本研究以215份服务人员与顾客配对问卷进行分析,再以阶层迴归进行假设检定。本研究的发现如下︰(1)表层演出与顾客对员工满意度呈负相关、深层演出与顾客对公司满意度呈正相关;(2)表层演出搭配顾客导向印象管理及服务贴心行为,能有效降低表层演出带来的顾客负面观感;(3)而深层演出搭配顾客导向印象管理反而会降低顾客满意度。
根据本研究结果,建议企业在实行教育训练时,可透过角色扮演、情绪管理课程,降低表层演出带来的负面影响,并提升深层演出带来的正面影响;企业可适度提供折扣,让服务人员能弹性运用。
【英文摘要】:Customer satisfaction is one of the important indexes for both service organizations and frontline employee. Therefore, several distinct research areas, such as relational marketing or employee emotional labor, have stressed on how to enhance customer satisfaction and build long-term relationship. The present study applied the “task-relationship-self”framework to integrate three different types of service behaviors: emotional labor, customer-oriented impression management and service sweethearting, and investigate their impacts on customer satisfaction towards the company and employees. In addition, the researcher also explore whether three types of service behaviors interact with each other in predicting customer satisfaction towards the company and employees.
This study collected the data from 215 customer-employees dyads and used the hierarchical regression analyses to test hypotheses. Our findings showed that: (1) surface acting was negatively related to customer satisfaction towards the employee while deep acting was positively related to customer satisfaction towards the company; (2) customer-directed impression management and service sweethearting buffered the negative relationship between surface acting and customer satisfaction towards the employee; (3) customer-directed impression management weakened the positive relationship between deep acting and customer satisfaction towards the company. Finally, based on the findings, the present study offers several implications for researchers and managers.
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  • 来源:中山大学;作者:蔡雅昀
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