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以眼动行为探讨网路购物环境之框架效应现象与详尽思考程度调节效果

【中文摘要】:网际网路发展增进人类生活上的便利,也改变人类诸多生活模式。其中,电子商务应用使得个人购买行为和企业经营模式产生变化。电子商务市场的庞大消费族群和高活络度形成之市场规模,表示此场域具有高度经济价值,值得学术和产业界投入研究。
电子商务的交易环境存在资讯过载现象,由于人的有限理性使得人们在有限的认知资源下仅能就某些範围的资讯进行检视而可能产生判断上的偏误。因此

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,本研究以框架效应和详尽可能性模式(Elaboration Likelihood Model, ELM)为基础,从注意力(attention)观点探讨框架讯息和消费者对资讯的处理动机和处理能力形成之详尽思考程度如何引发消费者的注意力,进而影响消费者的购买决策;亦即以眼动行为做为认知处理表徵,透过眼动仪追蹤消费者在网路购物时对产品相关资讯的注意力历程,了解消费者在网路购物时框架讯息和消费者的详尽思考程度对产品资讯处理和购买行为的影响。本研究共进行二个实验

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探讨三个研究问题:(1)网路购物环境是否仍存在框架效应现象?(2)框架讯息如何影响眼动行为并导引消费者的购买决策?(3)消费者在不同详尽思考程度下对框架效果、眼动行为和购买决策的影响为何?
实验一主要探讨网路购物环境的框架效果和眼动行为,研究结果显示正面框架讯息比负面框架讯息有较高的购买意愿,而负面框架讯息比正面框架讯息会引发较长凝视时间观看产品资讯,且产品功能资讯和购买资讯的凝视时间对购买意愿具有预测力。实验二主要以详尽可能性模式(ELM)为基础,在实验一的研究模式下探讨详尽思考程度在框架讯息对眼动行为、购买意愿以及在购买意愿预测力之调节效果,研究显示(1)高详尽思考程度下,正面框架讯息比负面框架讯息有较高的购买意愿,但低详尽思考程度下,正、负面框架讯息在购买意愿则无差异;(2)低详尽思考程度下,负面框架讯息比正面框架讯息有较长的凝视时间在整个产品页面和产品图片、产品功能、框架讯息等三个资讯区块,但高详尽思考程度下,正、负面框架讯息在凝视时间的差异仅发生在少数资讯区块且无一致的效果。(3)高、低详尽思考程度之凝视时间均对购买意愿有预测力,且在高详尽思考程度下,负面框架讯息引发之凝视时间对购买意愿预测力较高于正面框架讯息,反之低详尽思考程度下则为正面框架讯息引发之凝视时间对购买意愿预测力高于负面框架讯息。以上研究结果意谓着网路购物环境下存在框架效应现象并反应在购买意愿和眼动凝视行为,且眼动凝视行为对购买意愿之预测结果意谓着框架讯息会特别引发某些资讯区块的注意力而对购买意愿有重要影响;此外,不同消费者的详尽思考程度会使框架效应现象和购买意愿预测产生变化。
在学术贡献部份,本研究将框架讯息应用在多元资讯的网路购物环境中,并先从眼动行为探讨框架效应下的认知处理模式,再探讨详尽思考程度对框架效应和眼动行为的调节效果;亦即,本研究之研究重点在探讨机制而非仅有外生变数。此外,本研究以眼动追蹤仪器推论眼动行为与认知反应之关係,除了避免自我陈述问题,同时以眼动行为做为预测指标之方法可提供后续研究的思考方向。最后,本研究结果对框架效应在行为面的探讨和对ELM理论的基本假设验证与解释具有研究贡献和参考价值。在实务贡献部份,本研究以网路购物环境为实验情境,分析框架讯息和详尽思考程度所引发之眼动行为在不同资讯区块的凝视时间对购买意愿之预测,可提供以电子商务为经营模式之业者在讯息和页面设计之实务应用参考,例如:使用负面框架讯息吸引消费者注意和思考、以眼动行为识别消费者的详尽思考程度并对不同详尽思考程度之消费者使用不同框架讯息或产品资讯以达到刺激和预测消费者购买决策之目的。
【英文摘要】:With the fast development and diffusion of the Internet, e-commerce is gradually changing shopping behavior and business model, and has a high economic value where the academics and industries are worth investigating. In online shopping, it is important to understand how consumer processes tremendous amounts of information and then makes purchase from a vast market of e-sellers. More specifically, characteristics of human information processing such as selective perception and limited attention can cause cognitive biases which in turn will lead to irrational decision.
Based on the theory of the framing effect and the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), this study conducted two experiments and used eye tracker to explore three research questions by observing eye movement and purchase intention: (1) Are there framing effects in e-commerce? (2) What influence does the framed message have in customers’ eye movements, which in turn affect purchases behavior? (3) What influence does the customers’ elaboration have in framing effect, eye movement, and purchase behavior?
The first experiment aimed to explore the framing effect on purchase intention and eye movement in online shopping. Besides, t

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he experiment explored the predictive power of eye movement for purchase intention. The results showed that eye movement was more active when participants received a negatively framed message than when they received a positively framed message. Moreover, eye movement can predict purchase intention in the case of negative framing: a prolonged look at information of functional attributes (transaction-related cost or profit) is associated with high (low) purchase intention.
The second experiment aimed to explore the moderating effect of elaboration based on ELM and the first experiment. The results showed that the high elaboration is more susceptible to the framing effect on purchase intention, while the low elaboration is more susceptible to the framing effect on eye movement. The results also showed that eye movements are capable of predicting purchase intention when customers are under the different levels of elaboration: under the high elaboration, eye movement induced by negative framing had higher predictive power, while under the low elaboration, eye movement induced by positive framing showed higher predictive power.
The findings have important academic contributions to exploring the framing effect on behavior, and verifying and interpreting the ELM on basic assumptions. Besides, the findings have important practical implications for e-sellers to adopt negative framing for attracting consumers’ attention and for compelling them deliberation, to identify the characteristics of consumers’ elaboration using eye movements, and to deliver different framing messages and product information corresponding to different elaboration levels. These could be applied to the design of information presentation in e-commerce.
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  • 黄玫瑄(2010),「2010年台湾网友线上购物行为调查分析」,资策会产业研究报告,资策会产业情报研究所(MIC)。
  • 来源:中山大学;作者:杨淑斐
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