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台湾家族企业管理者关係类型与领导行为之研究

【中文摘要】:家族企业在台湾社会扮演了重要角色,这也是华人社会中常见的企业型态,也因为在企业内部不论是经营权、所有权,亦或是重要的管理角色几乎都是由亲人或亲密友人所担任,使得公司内部阶级制度和充斥着关係 (Guanxi)的概念,所以在上司-部属间存在着浓厚地信任与沟通问题。因此关于家族与企业的治理问题,及组织的职责分配和权力划分就变成一个重要的课题。本研究目的在于探讨家族企业中管理者的关係类型、人格特质与其所拥有的权力和领导部属行为间之关联性。
本研究主轴係以华人社会中独特的关係为基础,衍生出关係类型和知觉关係两种型式,并结合了内外控人格特质、权力基础和领导行为等概念而导出研究模型。并针对台湾中部和南部地区147家金属

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加工业中的家族企业进行问卷调查,共回收332份有效问卷。经过单因子变异数分析和阶层迴归分析后发现,家族企业中不同关係类型的管理者所拥有的权力和对待部属的影响策略均有所不同;拥有越多职位权的管理者,尤其是属于家人关係的管理者,在对待部属上越会使用

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刚强果断的方式。而内控型的管理者,不论其拥有职位权或是个人权,均与逢迎策略间的成正向关係。
就企业运作而言,关係是一种独特且重要的资源,它可以填补制度模糊或法规无法保护的部分,以保障个人应有的权力;因此,在该企业中建立或保持良好的关係,虽然不一定会得利,但一定不会吃亏。此外,属于朋友关係的管理者在家族企业中扮演着桥梁的角色,以补足家人关係的管理者过于刚强的影响策略,是一种使企业顺利运作的润滑剂。为了完成组织赋予的目标和提升整体的工作绩效,建议这类型的企业应该多重视人和的概念,维持企业内部良好的沟通管道。
【英文摘要】:The family business is a common business model among the Chinese community, and it has played an important role in the Taiwan society as well. However, this type of organization structure often causes communication problems between supervisor and subordinate, and it is because that the management, ownership and other pivotal positions of management are assigned to family or close friends. Thus, how to manage between family affairs, business, and distribution of responsibilities for the family business becomes an issue. The purpose of this study is to investigate the guanxi type and personalities of managers in the family business, as well as the correlation between managers’ power and their influence tactics to the subordinates.
The core of this study is based on the guanxi theory, and it is divided to guanxi type and perceived guanxi. The research model has combined locus of control, power based and influence tactics. We conducted a questionnaire survey from the 147 family businesses of metal processing industry in midland and south Taiwan, collecting 332 valid samples from all returned questionnaires. Through ANOVA and

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hierarchical regression analysis, it is learnt that the manager’s power and influence tactics to the subordinates vary as the managers’ guanxi type changes. For managers, who possess more position power, especially those in the family guanxi, they are more likely to use assertive attitude when treating subordinates. As for the internal personality pattern managers, the power and the ingratiatory strategies are in direct proportion.
For the internal corporation, guanxi is an unique and vital resource, because it can fill the gap, which the system is vague or the law cannot contain, and ensure the personal power. Therefore, maintaining a good guanxi in business may not get you somewhere for sure, but it will not be a loss definitely. Besides, managers, who are in the friend guanxi, often play a bridging role to complement the function of those managers, who may use the assertive attitude too significantly in the family guanxi. In addition, this type’s managers also provide a “lubricant” effect in order to keep the family business running smooth. We recommend that family business owners should pay more attention to harmonious relationship, working environment, and internal communication channels in the organization as to attain the objectives and improve the overall performance in the family business.
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  • 来源:中山大学;作者:吴东儒
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