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全球前十大零售商之关键成功因素

【中文摘要】:居于领导地位的全球前十大零售商在经营管理上之策略是许多零售业者学习的典範,因此其他零售商若能得知十大高绩效零售企业的关键成功因素,或许就能学习效仿以迈向成功,因此本研究根据《2014全球零售力量》,选择全球前十大零售商为研究对象。首先从产业层级探讨,本研究欲找出零售产业中的高绩效企业所该具备的关键成功因素;再者,从企业层级着手,本研究以个案分析的方式,描述全球前十大零售商的经营现况并找出该十家零售商其各自的策略性定位、关键成功因素以及持续性竞争优势。最后,本研究以「跨国企业与否」和「竞争策略」两指标将全球前十大零售商区分成五个类型,分析各类型之关键成功因素并针对各类型提出管理上之建议。
本研究主要透过大量文献的蒐集与整理进行个案分析,并辅以质性研究之人员访谈法,以面对面或电话访谈等方式进行,受访对象是两位经验丰富的零售业经理人,以及三位在国际企业经营领域的教授学者。本研究之研究结果如下:
一、零售业之关键成功因素有五,分别是零售店址的选择、以规模经济降低成本、供应链管理、顾客导向以及发展自有品牌。
二、十大零售商的五个类型
(一)

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跨国之成本领导企业:该类企业的共同关键成功因素为自有品牌策略,及以策略联盟、合资和收购等与当地市场现有厂商合作的方式进入新市场。
(二)非跨国之成本领导企业:该类之特色在于其多元化的经营业种,包括药局、诊所、加

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油站等附设于食品杂货商店内。
(三)跨国之差异化企业:该类企业共同的关键成功因素为以会员卡制度蒐集并分析顾客资料,从而更能满足顾客的各种需求。
(四)非跨国之差异化企业:该类之特色在于其强调设计与时髦感,以知名设计师为其设计的独家自有品牌商品来吸引消费者。
(五)跨国之集中化企业:该类企业之共同关键成功因素为仓储式卖场的经营型态,节省商店布置、卖地空间和补货人力等成本,将利润回馈在价格上。
【英文摘要】:The top 10 leading global retailers are exemplary as far as operations and management practices are concerned and are often imitated. Other retailers can uplift their performance levels if they learn from the key successful factors (KSF) of high performance retailers. This study takes the top 10 global retailers, according to “Global Powers of Retailing 2014”, as case study.

First of all, at the industrial level, this study aims to figure out what KSFs a high performance retailer should have in the highly competitive retail industry. Secondly, at the corporate level, this study conducts case studies to describe the current operating scenarios of the top 10 retailers and to find out the strategic positioning, KSFs and sustainable competitive advantages of each of these 10 retailers. Finally, this study classifies the 10 retailers into 5 categories based on two indexes, namely, “multi-nationality” and “competitive strategy”. Then the KSFs of each type are analyzed, critiqued and with improvements suggested upon them.

This study mainly conducts literature survey and personal interviews either through phone or face-to-face. Participants in this study include two experienced managers in the retail industry a

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nd three professors with expertise in the international business field. The results of this study are as follows:

1. The five KSFs of the retail industry are “choosing an ideal location”, “reducing costs through economies of scale”, supply chain management”, “customer-orientation” and “development of private brands”.

2. The five categories of the 10 retailers
(1) Multinational corporations with cost leadership strategy: The KSFs of this type are “establishment of private brands strategy” and “entering new markets through strategic alliance, joint venture and acquisition”.
(2) Non-multinational corporations with cost leadership: The characteristics of this type are diversified as far as kinds of business are concerned, such as pharmacy, clinic and fuel center attached to the food store.
(3) Multinational corporations with differentiation: The KSF of this type is analyzing data from membership cards in order to satisfy the demands of varied customers.
(4) Non-multinational corporations with differentiation: The characteristics of this type are emphasis on design and fashion. Catching consumers’ attention with exclusive private brand products designed by famous designers.
(5) Multinational corporations with focus: The KSFs of this type are “warehouse-mode” and “reduce costs on decorating, sales field and human resource”. Thus reciprocating customers with a better price.
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  • 来源:中山大学;作者:廖婉淳
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