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平衡公益与营利-以社会企业为例

【中文摘要】:近年来,有别于原先的非营利组织,出现了社会企业(Social Enterprise)的概念,并在各国蓬勃发展。在社会企业正发展的现在,一般社会大众似乎并不那幺了解社会企业,甚至没有办法在社会企业与非营利组织间做出清楚分别。在这样的想法下,可能就会对社会企业的营利行为产生误解,也可能会让社会企业的发展面临障碍。因此,本研究的目的在于,了解社会企业在台湾的发展现况与策略,并藉由调查一般大众对社会企业

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内涵与资金来源的了解程度,深入了解社会企业面对这样的整体环境与大众认知该如何应对,又要如何发展策略使组织能永续经营。
使用量化调查一般大众对社会企业内涵与资金来源的了解与深度访谈社会企业业者。本研究发现,民众对于社会企业的自给自足是赞同的,且认为「做公益」才是社会企业最应该做的事;但社会企业从业者认为,提升营运能力以面对组织本身会遇到的挑战才是最需要考虑的。且社会企业认为,社会大众是否能够区分非营利组织与社会企业并不是很重要,因其将民众视为消费者。因此社会

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企业希望做到的是坚守社会价值、提升产品品质及营运能力,如此才能顺利发展并吸引更多志同道合的消费者。
【英文摘要】:In recent years, the concept of social enterprise emerges and grows nicely in many countries. , However, people does not seem to fully understand what the social enterprise is and how it different from the non-profit organization. This thought might lead people misunderstand the profit behaviors of social enterprises, and it may let the development of social enterprises faces obstacles. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to understand the current situation and the development strategy of social enterprises in Taiwan. Through investigating the public''s understanding of the social enterprises and its source of funds, we can find out what strategies do the social enterprises take to face such public awareness and reach sustainable operation.
Based on both survey and in-depth interview research approaches methods, this study found that people agree with the self-sufficiency for social enterprises, and think "charity" is the most important thing for social enterprises. But social enterprises believe that enhance the operational capacity to mee

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t the challenges is the most important thing. And social enterprises think it is not important whether the public can distinguish between non-profit organizations and social enterprises or not. For them, public is consumer, therefore what they want to do is sticking to the social value, improving product quality and operational capabilities, then they can successfully develop and attract more consumers.
【参考文献】:

  • 一、中文部分
  •  陈金贵(2002)。非营利组织社会企业化经营探讨。新世纪智库论坛,19:39-51。
  •  郑胜分(2007)。社会企业的概念分析。南华大学公共行政与政策研究所政策研究学报,第八期,65-108。
  •  杨君琦(2011)。社会企业组织型态与经营类型之初探。辅仁管理评论(社会企业专刊),第十八卷第一期,53-78。
  •  官有垣,王仕图(2013)。台湾的社会企业:特质、发展趋势与效应。人文社会科学研究,7(1),102-126。
  •  林怡君(2007)。英国社会企业发展之研究。推动社会企业促进就业政策规划建议书,劳委会职训局委託,2007年。
  •  陈定铭(2007)。非营利组织、政府与社会企业:理论与实践。台北市:智胜文化。
  •  张春兴(1988)。知之历程与教之历程:认知心理学的发展及其在教育上的应用。教育心理学报,第二十一期,17-38。
  •  什幺是社会事业。中华民国社会事业发展协会。2014年4月10日取自 http://www.sec-taiwan.org/intro/intro.html
  •  社会企业的定义。社企流。2014年4月10日取自http://www.seinsights.asia/aboutse
  •  关于光原。光原社会企业股份有限公司。2014年5月16日取自http://www.o-power.com.tw/
  •  认识喜憨儿。喜憨儿社会福利基金会。2014年5月16日取自http://www.c-are-us.org.tw/
  • 二、英文部分
  •  Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J., eds. (2001). The emergence of social enterprise. London and New York: Routledge
  •  Defourny, J. & Nyssens, M. (2010). Conceptions of Social Enterprise and Social Entrepreneurship in Europe and the United States: Convergences and Divergences. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship. 1(1), 32–53
  •  Dees, J.G. (1998). Enterprising nonprofits. Harvard Business Review, Jan-Feb: 55-67
  •  Dees, J.G. & Elias, J. (1998). The challenges of combing social and commercial enterprise. Business Ethics Quarterly, 8, 1: 165-178
  •  Dees, J.G. & Anderson, B.B. (2006). Framing a theory of social entrepreneurship: building on two schools of practice and thought. Research on social entrepreneurship, ARNOVA occasional paper series, 1(3), 39–66
  •  Pestoff, V.A. (1998). Beyond the Market and State: Social Enterprise and Civil Democracy in a Welfare Society. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Company, 9-20
  •  Young, D. & Salamon, L.M. (2002). Commercialization, social ventures, and for-profit competition. In: L.M. Salamon, ed. The state of nonprofit America. Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 423–446
  •  OECD. (2001). Social Enterprises. OECD
  •  EMES European Research Network. (1997, 1998). The emergence of social enterprises. A new answer to social exclusion in Europe. Semestrial Progress Reports to the European Commission
  •  Elizabeth, C. & Katerina, N. & Mine, K. (2010). Social entrepreneurship and enterprise: International and innovation perspectives. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Vol. 22, No. 6, 485–493
  •  Kerlin, J. (2006). Social enterprise in the United States and Europe: understanding and learning from the differences. Voluntas, 17 (3), 247–263
  •  Kerlin, J. (2013). Defining Social Enterprise Across Different Contexts: A Conceptual Framework Based on Institutional Factors. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 42(1), 84 –108
  •  Zahra, S.A. & Gedajlovic, E. & Neubaum, D.O. & Shulman, J.M. (2009). A typology of social entrepreneurs: Motives, search processes and ethical challenges. Journal of Business Venturing, 24: 519–32
  •  Gibson, C. B. & Birkinshaw, J. (2004). The Antecedents, Consequences, and Mediating Role of Organizational Ambidexterity. Academy of Management Journal 2004, Vol. 47, No. 2, 209–226
  •  Institute for Social Enterpreneurs. (2000). http://www.socialent.org/overview.htm
  •  Standford GSB. (2001) Center for Entrepreneura/ Studies
  • http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/ces
  • 来源:中山大学;作者:傅怡亭
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